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Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

Written By Kesehatan Lingkungan on Sunday, January 20, 2013 | 7:26 PM

Sekilas Sejarah Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

Indonesia, sebagaimana negara lain, akan sangat berkepentingan dengan pencapaian beberapa tujuan dengan indikator global yang telah disepakati dalam bentuk komitment Millenium Development Goals (MDGs). Sebagaimana kita ketahui, terdapat 8 tujuan dan sasaran pokok MDGs. Namun sebelum dicapai kesepakatan tersebut proses lahirnya MDGs mengalami pasang surut proses lama dan perundingan alot. Perjalanan MDGs dimulai dengan berbagai konferensi, antara lain :

  1. The Specialist Conferences (1990-1995)
  2. Children’s Summit New York, 1990
  3. UN Summit on Environment &Development Rio de Ja iero,1992
  4.  Human Rights Conference Vienna, 1993
  5. International Conference on Population and Development Cairo, 1994
  6. World Summit for Social Development Copenhagen, 1995
  7. World Conference on Women Beijing, 1995
  8. Shaping the 21st Century (IDG)
OECD DAC 1996

  • We the Peoples Koffi Annan 2000
  • A Better World for All UN, OECD, IBRD, IMF, 2000
  • Millennium Declaration UN, 2000
  • Road Map (MDG) UN, 2001
  • The Inter Agency and Expert Group 2002

    Beberapa tahapan dan konferensi datas kemudian melahirkan International Development Goals, khususnya dalam bidang ekonomi dan sosial. Dalam bidang “a reduction by one-half in the proportion of people living in extreme poverty  by 2015. Sedangkan dalam bidang pembangunan social :
    • Universal primary education  in all countries by 2015;
    • Demonstrated progress toward gender equality  and the empowerment of women  by eliminating gender disparity in primary and secondary education by 2005;
    •  A reduction by two-thirds in the mortality rates for infants and  children under age 5 and a reduction by three-fourths in maternal  mortality, all by 2015;
    • Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
    • Access through the primary health-care system to reproductive  health services for all individuals of appropriate ages as soon as possible and no later than the year 2015.

    Dalam bidang pembangunan lingkungan yang berkelanjutan (environmental sustainability and regeneration), “The current implementation of national strategies for sustainable development in all countries by 2005, so as to ensure that current trends in the loss of environmental resources  are effectively reversed at both global and national levels by 2015”.

    Sampai pada tahap diatas, jika kita perharikan terdapat beberapa isu yng dihilangkan (hasil kompromi ?), seperti kesetaraan gender dan pemberdayaan perempuan (Gender equality and women’s empowerment), kesehatan reproduksi (reproductive health), yang dirasa sensitif pada aspek agama dan kepercayaan (menyangkut kontrsepsi, etc),. Sementara beberapa topik muncul dan mengalami penguatan, seperti pertumbuhan ekonomi, pembangunan berkelanjutan (sustainable development and environment), HIV/AIDS, serta technologi.

    Kemudian lahir Millennium Declaration, yang berisi antara lain : Peace, security and disarmament; Development and poverty eradication; Protecting the environment; Human rights, democracy and good governance; Protecting the vulnerable; Meeting the special needs of Africa;
    Strengthening the United Nations.

    Secara khusus deklarasi millenium tersebut menyorot sektor pembangunan dan penghapusan angka kemiskinan (end poverty?). Beberapa kesepakatan terkait development and poverty eradication, antra lain
    • To halve, by the year 2015, the proportion of the world’s people whose income is less than one dollar a day  and the proportion of people who suffer from hunger and, by the same date, to halve the proportion of people who are unable to reach or to afford safe drinking water
    • To ensure that, by the same date, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling  and that girls and boys will have equal  access to all levels of education
    • By the same date, to have reduced maternal mortality  by three quarters, and under-five child mortality  by two thirds,of their current rates
    • To have, by then, halted, and begun to reverse,the spread of HIV/AIDS, the scourge of malaria and other major diseases  that afflict humanity
    • To provide special assistance to children orphaned by HIV/AIDS
    • By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers  as proposed in the ‘Cities without Slums’ initiative.
    • To have, by then, halted, and begun to reverse, the spread of HIV/AIDS, the scourge of malaria and other major diseases  that afflict humanity
    • To provide special assistance to children orphaned by HIV/AIDS  By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers  as proposed in the ‘Cities without Slums’ initiative.’
    Berdasarkan deklarasi millennium diatas, kemudian lahir Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), yang berisi 8 tujuan pokok :
    1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
    2. Achieve universal primary education
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    4. Promote gender equality and empower women
    5. Reduce child mortality
    6. Improve maternal health
    7.  Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
    8.  Ensure environmental sustainability
    9. Develop a global partnership for development
    Base line yang digunakan untuk mengukur pencapaian MDGs adalah base line tahun 1990. Pertanyaan besaar saat ini adalah, seberapa optimis Indonesia mampu mencapai tujuan MDGs diatas? Kemudian bagaimana nasib MDGs setelah tahun 2015 ?
    TOBE CONTINUED ....

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